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ARA Model Review: Brumm 1:43 Scale Ferrari 312PB

29 May 1998



Distributed by Automobilia, division of Lustron Industries,
Inc.  18 Windgate Drive, New City, New York 10956  Phone or
fax: 914-639-6806  e-mail:

	Brumm has produced an outstanding model (catalog number
R260) of the Ferrari 312PB Mario Andretti drove to his only
Daytona sports car victory, the 1972 Daytona 6 Hours.  Mario
shared the victory with Jacky Ickx!
	This beautiful Ferrari-red model is appropriately
accented with yellow striping and appropriately-hued
supplier and sponsor decals and markings.  The body contours
and proportions are accurately reproduced.
	The 312PB was a sleek, "low to the ground" racecar and
the model is evocative of that image!
	Detail abounds!  And we're talking SMALL details here,
such as dual American flags (on the nosepiece) only 1/8" in
size in 1:43 scale!
	Notable are such minor details as the correct
coloration of the headrest fairing (white), visible and
appropriately-positioned and proportioned radiators and
cooling ductwork.
	The interior is well-detailed including
	The model has been compared to two rolling-start grid
photographs (page 37, Flat-12 by Alan Henry, Motor Racing
Publications, London, 1981 and page 413, Ferrari: Sports
Racing and Prototypes Competition Cars by Antoine Prunet,
W.W. Norton & Company, 1983, New York & London).  These
clear photographs decisively verify the accuracy of the
"spot on" details including the car number (#2), the small
dual American flags, the Carello, Firestone, Heuer and Shell
decals, the windscreen design, the rollbar design, the "high
mirror" arrangement, the headlight assemblies, and rear
	A large, two-page side view photograph (page 52-53, The
Speed Merchants by Michael Keyser, Prentice-Hall, 1973)
confirms the accuracy and placement of the Britax, Magneti
Marelli, Ferrari "Prancing Horse", Champion, Prestolite and
Koni decals and driver name listings!
	As with all Brumm models (manufactured in Italy), the
model is 1:43 scale and is presented in a see-through
plastic display case with a removable cover.
	The 1:43 scale is a good compromise between space
considerations regarding display and sufficient size to
permit reasonable levels of detail.
	Model length: 3.25 inches; width: 1.75 inches; height:
0.875 inch
	Model construction: Metal with plastic interior
(detailed) and windscreen
	Display case length: 5 inches; width: 2.375 inches;
height: 1.875 inches
	The 1972-specification 312PB is notable not only for
achieving a sweep of all ten victories in the ten 1972 World
Championship of Makes races it contested but also for its
role in achieving the all-time (1953-1992) record for
consecutive driver victories (4) in World Championship
Sports Car events for Jacky Ickx.  That streak began in the
Daytona 6 Hours, won by Jacky and Mario Andretti in the car
this model depicts!
	That victory is described by Alan Henry in his book
Flat-12 (Motor Racing Publications, London, 1981): "The
Daytona 6 Hours took place on February 6 round the famous
speed bowl, this time with 0888 in the hands of
Ickx/Andretti, 0890 for Regazzoni/Redman and 0892 for
Peterson/Schenken.  For the start, Andretti and Regazzoni
were side-by-side on the front row, but all three Ferraris
were given a good run for their money by Reine Wisell in Jo
Bonnier's Lola-Cosworth T280.  Andretti/Ickx led from the
start, but Wisell quickly pulled right up on Regazzoni round
the banking, challenging the Italian car time and time
again.  Unfortunately for Wisell, Regazzoni picked up some
wreckage from a crashed Chevrolet Corvette-the Swiss had a
mind-boggling spin as a rear tyre blew, and the PB's rear
body section flew off, bouncing straight into the screen of
Wisell's car.  Mercifully, Reine kept control, but the front
of the Lola was pretty badly frayed and both cars had to
limp into the pits for attention.  In fact, this was a race
in which the Ferraris didn't have it all their own way by
any means.  The Peterson/Schenken machine was an early pit
visitor with clutch trouble, finishing the event staggering
round in second place with gearbox problems, ahead of the
Alfa of Vic Elford/Helmut Marko.  Winners were
Ickx/Andretti, but the fact that they survived to triumph on
11 cylinders is another great testimony to the strength of
the machinery."
	The 312PB was created in response to a change in the
rules governing sports car racing.  As Alan Henry described:
"The CSI announced in 1970 that there would be an overall
sports car limit of 3 litres from the start of 1972, except,
of course, for GT and saloon contenders.  While Porsche
announced that they would cease endurance racing at the end
of the 1971 season, Ferrari lost no time at all turning to
the development of a 3-litre sports car, using their
well-tired flat-12-cylinder Grand Prix engine as the basis
for a long-distance power unit.  Although the 512s raced
against the works Porsches in 1970, once the CSI's
announcement was made, Modena dropped all further
development work on the big V12 and turned its attention to
developing the 312PB.  What's more, they decided to run
their new 3-litre prototype against the 5-litre Porsches
throughout 1971 for development and evaluation purposes
before launching a major assault on the Championship for
Makes the following year."
	In his book, Ferrari: Sports Racing and Prototypes
Competition Cars (W.W. Norton & Company, 1983, New York &
London), Antoine Prunet writes: "Ferrari had anticipated
this measure and had therefore sacrificed the 1971 season to
the perfection of the 312PB; they now found themselves in a
perfect position for the start of the 1972 season.  Alfa
Romeo with its 33/TT3, and Lola with its T280 would be
almost the only rivals of the 312PB which, even if it was
only just emerging from a quite incredible chapter of
accidents, had nevertheless revealed a formidable potential.
	Jeremy Walton notes in his book, Racing Mechanic
Ermanno Cuoghi: Mechanic to a world champion (1980, Osprey
Publishing, London) "In January 1971 they made their first
racing appearance with a new Ferrari 312P.  For that Buenos
Aires opener to the title hunt, the flat-twelve Ferrari was
quoted as weighing 600 kg, over 100 lb less than designs
from Matra and Alfa Romeo at the time, and providing 450 bhp
from an engine in nearly the same stage of tune as the
formula 1 unit for the 312B (for Boxer or flat, opposing,
cylinder layout).  This led a lot of people to dub it a
Formula 1 car with a sports body on it.  In Cuoghi's opinion
that was very far from the truth, the wide spaceframe
chassis being totally different to the Grand Prix design,
having the appearance of a full monocoque, thanks to
riveted-on alloy sheets.  Many other essential components
were unique to the sports Ferrari as well."
	Henry describes the 312PB: "The flat-12 engine (80.0 mm
x 49.6 mm, 2991 cc) was prepared in detuned trim to deliver
a relatively modest 440 bhp at 10,800 rpm, as opposed to the
12,600 rpm rev limit on the Grand Prix unit.  The 312 PB
chassis was formed by a tubular spaceframe clad in sheet
aluminum to form a semi-monocoque unit and, behind the
cockpit, the tubes formed a structure over the engine, which
was also attached to the rear of the main frame, forming
what might be termed the car's backbone.  The cockpit
contained two seats, close together, flanked by wide
sponsons, the left one of which accomodated the 120-litre
fuel tank.  By its position on the left of the car, the fuel
tank balanced the driver's weight on the right, although the
tank was fed from a huge filler cap at the forward end of
the the right-hand sponson, a pipe taking the fuel across
the cockpit floor (beneath the driver's knees) to the tank. 
>From the tank itself another filler cap protruded, topped by
an Avery-Hardoll bayonet-type attachment matching the one on
the right.  At fuel stops a plastic container would be
clamped on to the left-hand filler cap, acting as a refuge
for the air forced out of the tank under pressure as the
gravity-fed hose pumped Shell into the opposite side of the
312PB.  When petrol started to move into the container on
the left-hand side, it was an indication that the tank was
filled, and when that container and hose were removed from
their respective apertures, the connectors self-sealed and
the car could resume racing.
	Water radiators were mounted centrally, at the rear of
each sponson, the left-hand one having the oil tank behind
it.  The engine oil-cooler was mounted on top of the clutch
housing.  For refilling the system with lubricant, there was
a plug-in filling attachment operated in conjunction with a
sight-glass tube to show the level in the tank, visible to
the mechanics through a slot in the car's flanks.
	Suspension at the front was by double wishbones with
outboard coil-spring/damper units and the cast-alloy
hub-carriers extended rearwards to form steering arms, the
rack-and-pinion assembly passing across the driver's knees. 
The brake calipers were mounted on the hub-carriers and the
wheels were retained by a single central locking nut, which
was intended to accept air-assisted hoses for loosening and
tightening at pit stops.
	At the rear, the disc calipers were integral with the
hub-carrier and were hung from a lower wishbone with its
apex on a casting under the clutch casing, secured at the
top by a single top link.  The five-speed-gearbox was hung
'out the back,' as on the Grand Prix cars, although this was
to be altered for 1972 to provide a quick-change facility
when it came to fitting alternative ratios."
	Henry also relates an interesting story regarding the
model's designation: "There is a story recounted by
respected Italian journalist Franco Lini, himself a former
Ferrari team manager, concerning the designation officially
given to the 3-litre flat-12 cylinder Group six
sports-racing car which steamrollered its way to victory in
eary 1972 long-distance event for which it was entered. 
Lini says that he heard that Modena had dubbed the sleek
little 'two-seater Grand Prix car' the 312PB-standing for
3-litre, 12-cylinder, prototipo boxer, the boxer referring
of course to the horizontally-opposed engine.  Lini realized
that, following the traditional Ferrari system, , the car
should be designated boxer prototipo and brought this
subject up with the Commendatore when the car was unveiled. 
Franco recounts that Ferrari snorted and replied: 'It's the
312PB.  How can I call it the BP when my cars are contracted
to run on Shell!"
	The 1971 312PB campaign was a "research and
development" effort conducted in competition.  Only one
three-liter 312PB entry competed in each event against the
might of Porsche's five-liter 917s.
	The car led in its first appearance but suffered a
tragic end as Ignazio Giunti died in a wreck in the Buenos
Aires season-opener.  In the 1971 Sebring 12 Hours, Mario
Andretti and Jacky Ickx teamed to lead laps 40 through 117
before retiring with gearbox failure.  Ickx and Clay
Regazzoni drove the entry at Brands Hatch; Ickx was Fast
Qualifier and led the race but lost eight laps after contact
with a backmarker; the duo finished second.  At Monza
Ickx/Regazzoni were again the victim of contact with a car
being lapped, and at Spa the same fate befell them for the
third consecutive race!
	Ickx then was Fast Qualifier for the Nurburgring round,
set Fast Lap, and with Regazzoni led laps 1-6 and 13-21
before engine failure retired the car!
	Starting second at the Osterreichring, the duo led laps
31-148 before suspension failure caused the car to crash out
of the event.
	In the season finale at Watkins Glen, Ickx was paired
with Andretti; they started third and led laps 51-52 and
54-55 before retiring with engine failure as a 312PB retired
while leading for the third consecutive race!
	In his book Directory of Classic Prototypes and Grand
Touring Cars (Aston Publications, 1988), Anthony Pritchard
notes: "In Prototype racing 1972 was the most successful
year in Ferrari's racing history and the team scored ten
wins, without a single failure.  A batch of six new cars had
been built so that three-car teams could be fielded at each
race without having to run the cars in successive races. 
Ferrari had an immensely strong team of drivers consisting
of Ickx, Regazzoni and Andretti (all members of the Ferrari
Formula 1 team), together with Brian Redman, Ronnie
Peterson, and Tim Schenken.
	Apart from the fact that the cars were superbly
engineered, the full year's testing in 1971 proved of
immense benefit, the team was well managed by Peter Schetty
and standards of preparation, the responsibility of Ermanno
Cuoghi, formerly with the Gulf team, but now joint chief
Ferrari mechanic, were better than at any time in Ferrari
	Henry concurs: "For the 1972 season, Ferrari mounted
one of the most imposing onslaughts ever seen in the world
of sports car racing.  In anticipation of strong
competition, both from Matra and the new Alfa Romeo flat-12,
a three-car team was planned to contest all 11 rounds of the
World Championship for Makes.  To this end, Maranello built
a total of six more 312PBs, numbered alternately from 0886
to 0896, and devised a programme whereby each driver pairing
would alternate between two allocated cars from event to
event.  Thus the cars that opened the season in Buenos Aires
on January 9 would next be seen in the third round of the
Championship at Sebring, and the cars raced in the second
round at Daytona would make their next appearance at the
fourth round at Brands Hatch, and so on.  Three mechanics
were allocated to each of the six cars, so one team would be
away at a race while another would be back at base preparing
a fresh car.  It was a massively expensive programmed,
reputedly funded by Fiat to the tune of well over a million
	"On the driver front, Ferrari's talent scouts were
scouring the Formula One scene intently.  Under contract
already were Jacky Ickx and Clay Regazzoni, with Mario
Andretti still available to race when his USAC schedule
allowed.  In fact, Ferrari made a big play for Andretti,
tempting the Italian-born driver with a generous "full time"
contract if he would come and live in Italy.  But Andretti
had too much going fro him on the other side of the Atlantic
and wouldn't accept anybody trying to impose their will on
him when it came to choosing where he lived."
	In The Speed Merchants (Prentice-Hall, 1973), Michael
Keyser notes: "In 1972, Peter Schetty was 29 and in his
second year as Ferrari's team manager.  The prize was the
1972 World Championship of Makes, and Ferrari, after a
languid effort the year before, had decided to go all out to
win it.  The drivers they had were among the world's best:
Ickx, Andretti, Redman, Regazzoni, Schenken, Peterson.  The
cars were newly designed and were well-supported with money
from Fiat, Ferrari's parent company.
	Peter Schetty was in a good position as a team manager
since he spoke four languages.  He had been a prototype
driver himself and had the full confidence of the factory as
he set out to win the championship."
	As Henry notes, the 1972 PBs "now had wider wheel rims
(11-inch front, 17-inch rear compared with the previous
year's 10-inch front, 16-inch rear) and lower-profile tyres,
while the flat-12 was quoted as producing 460 bhp, an
increase of 20 bhp, still at the 10,800 rpm limit.  The cars
were a little wider to conform with the latest regulations,
and slightly heavier by some 40 pounds (total 1430 lb/650
	Prunet elaborates "The modifications made to the 312PB
for 1972 were minimal, and were mostly due to the tyre
changes and the requirements of the new regulations.  The
adoption of even lower-profile, and much wider, Firestone
tyres had necessitated a widening of the track, which
manifested itself in a slight bulge in the rear wings and in
a reduction of some 6 cm in the height of the car.  The
prescribed minimum weight (650 kg) had permitted the chassis
to be reinforced.  The diameter of certain tubes had been
enlarged and, for the same reasons, the contours of the
cockpit had been modified in such a way that the passenger
seat was no longer covered by a fairing."
	In the 1972 season-opener at Buenos Aires, Ronnie
Peterson was the fast qualifier and started on the pole; the
Jacky Ickx/Mario Andretti entry started third and the Clay
Regazzoni/Brian Redman 312PB started fourth.  Peterson and
teammate Tim Schenken led more than half of the event and
led a 312PB 1-2 over Regazzoni/Redman as both cars completed
168 laps.  The Ickx/Andretti car lost eighteen laps in the
pits with electrical problems but still finished tenth, only
16 laps behind the winners.
	Andretti put his car on the pole for the Daytona 6
Hours with the Regazzoni/Redman car starting second and
Schenken/Peterson third!  The Ickx/Andretti car led 153 of
194 laps (4-7, 26-32, 34-67, 79-90, 98, and 100-194) and won
by two laps over Schenken/Peterson.  Regazzoni and Redman
finished fourth, fifteen laps down.  Schenken and Peterson
had clutch problems; they led fourteen laps (73-78, 91-97,
and 99).  The Regazzoni/Redman entry was the victim of
accident debris after leading 21 of the first 25 laps (1-3,
8-25).  The 312PBs combined to lead every lap of the race!
	Andretti won the pole for the Sebring 12 Hours with the
Regazzoni/Redman car qualifying second.  Ickx and Andretti
won by two laps over teammates Schenken/Peterson.  The
runnerup Ferrari was 24 laps ahead of the third-placed Alfa
Romeo!  The winners led 112 laps (laps 1-63 and 211-259);
the other 147 laps (64-210) were led by the Regazzoni/Redman
312PB; Redman set Fast Lap but the car was eliminated by a
fire after completing 215 laps.
	Ickx and Andretti took their third consecutive win with
victory at Brands Hatch; this time, however, they started
second as the Regazzoni/Redman car was on the pole with
Schenken/Peterson third.  Jacky and Mario won by one lap
over Schenken and Peterson; the Regazzoni/Redman car lost
fifteen minutes to an oil leak and finished fifth, fifteen
laps down.
	Jacky Ickx won a Sports Car World Championship-record
fourth consecutive race by taking the win at Monza.  The
victory came from second starting position and unlike the
first three of the streak was achieved not with Mario
Andretti but rather Clay Regazzoni as partner.  They won by
four laps over the Reinhold Joest/Gerhard Schueler Porsche
908 in the only event with more than one 312PB entry
producing less than a 1-2 312PB finish!
	Ronnie Peterson won the pole at Monza and also set Fast
Lap; he spun on lap 33 and lost eleven laps, eventually
finishing third, nine laps behind Ickx/Regazzoni.  For this
race Redman was teamed with Arturo Merzario, as "Little Art"
drove a Ferrari for the first time in 1972; the car
completed only 32 laps before Redman spun off in the rain.
	The Redman/Merzario pairing bounced back to win at Spa;
they started second and won by a lap over the Ickx/Regazzoni
duo.  The runnerup car had started on pole and led until a
late-race flat tire.  The Peterson/Schenken pairing started
third but Peterson wrecked in the rain on lap 57.
	Ferrari entered only one car in the Targa Florio
classic against a four-car Alfa Romeo team but won anyway by
16.9 seconds over the runnerup Alfa Romeo.  The victory was
achieved by the unusual pairing of Arturo Merzario and rally
star Sandro Munari!  Merzario had been the fastest qualifier
for the event while Helmut Marko in the Alfa Romeo set the
race's Fast Lap in an ultimately unsuccessful effort to
catch the Ferrari!  The Ferrari led all but the fourth lap,
led by Marko.
	At the Nurburgring Peterson won the pole and the
Peterson/Schenken duo led most of the race, winning by four
minutes, thirty seconds over teammates Merzario/Redman (this
duo started sixth).  Regazzoni and Ickx started eighth but
Regazzoni wrecked on the 18th lap (of 44) as Ickx was
saddled with his only retirement of the season!
	The Derek Bell/Gijs Van Lennep Cosworth Ford
DFV-powered Mirage M6 qualified second for the Nurburgring
race and led briefly before finishing fourth.
	Austria's Osterreichring featured a four-car 312PB
entry with an additional car for Helmut Marko/Carlos Pace;
Marko was serving as a "one-time" replacement for Clay
Regazzoni, injured in a pre-race soccer mishap!  The 312PBs
finished 1-2-3-4 as Ickx/Redman won by one lap (with Ickx
setting Fast Lap en route to victory) over Marko/Pace (this
duo started fifth).  Peterson/Schenken finished third, four
laps down, suffering clutch slip, after starting fourth,
while Merzario/Munari, the sixth-place starters, finished
fourth, six laps down.
	Ironically, although the perfect sweep of the top four
positions was a high point for Ferrari, the race began with
the Bell/Van Lennep Mirage on the pole and the Cosworth Ford
DFV-powered Lola of Gerard Larrousse in second starting
position!  Both cars failed to finish the race, however!
	The season finale at Watkins Glen gave Ickx his sixth
win of 1972 and Andretti his fourth victory; the pairing
started second and won by 13.0 seconds over
Schenken/Peterson, leading only the final three (of 195)
laps!  Schenken (the Fast Qualifier) and Peterson had led up
to that point!  Redman and Merzario were teamed in the
fourth-starting third 312PB entry but a blown engine caused
their retirement after 136 laps.
	In the ten Championship events, Ferrari fielded 29
312PB entries, won all ten races, achieved eight runnerup
finishes, two third-place finishes, twenty Top Three
"podium" finishes, two fourth-place finishes, one
fifth-place finish, twenty-three Top Five finishes, one
tenth-place finish, and twenty-four Top Ten finishes!  A
312PB failed to finish only five times, twice for mechanical
reasons, three times due to wrecks!  The 312PBs finished
1-2-3-4 once and 1-2 seven times plus the Targa Florio win
scored by the single entry, failing to score at least a 1-2
with a multi-car entry in only one race!
	The ten-race, 29-entry 1972 effort completed a total of
4352 laps of a possible 4711, or a staggering 92.38%!
	By comparison, the works Alfa Romeo effort never
managed better than a third-place finish (Buenos Aires,
Daytona, Sebring, Brands Hatch, Nurburgring) against a
multi-car 312PB effort with its best result, a 2-3 finish in
the Targa Florio, coming behind the only Ferrari entered in
the race!  Alfa Romeo skipped Monza, Spa, Osterreichring,
and Watkins Glen, but did compete in the LeMans 24 Hours,
with one car finishing fourth and the other two suffering
mechanical retirements.  The Alfas suffered eight mechanical
retirements in 23 starts.
	The Cosworth Ford DFV-powered Mirages posted a best
finish of third at Watkins Glen with European finishes of
fourth at Spa and the Nurburgring.  Cosworth Ford
DFV-powered Lolas produced a best finish of fifth, at Spa;
this finish was bettered several times by two liter Cosworth
Ford-powered entries!
	Ten drivers competed in the 29 1972 Ferrari 312PB
entries.  Ickx, Peterson, Redman, and Schenken drove in nine
events each, Regazzoni seven, Merzario six, Andretti five,
Munari two, and Marko and Pace one each.
	Ickx achieved six wins and a runnerup finish plus a
tenth-place finish.  He suffered only one retirement, caused
by codriver Regazzoni's accident.  Jacky won four times with
Mario and once each with Regazzzoni and Redman.  His six
wins and six lead-lap finishes led the 312PB drivers.
	Andretti ranked second in wins with four from only five
starts; he also finished tenth once, each time paired with
Ickx.  He suffered no retirements and tied for
second-ranking in lead-lap finishes with four.
	Redman won three of his nine starts; he also achieved a
runnerup finish, a fourth and a fifth for a total of six Top
Five finishes.  Redman suffered two mechanical retirements
and crashed out of one race.  He finished on the lead lap
four times.
	Merzario won two of his six starts, Spa with Redman and
the Targa with Munari, and also achieved a runnerup finish
and a fourth-place finish, taking three lead-lap finishes. 
Merzario suffered one mechanical retirement plus a
retirement at Monza caused by codriver Redman's accident.
	The Peterson/Schenken pairing contested nine races and
won twice, took four runnerup finishes, and two third-place
finishes to achieve the best total of Top Three "podium"
finishes, eight, although the duo finished on the lead lap
only three times.  They suffered one retirement, due to a
Peterson accident at Spa.
	Regazzoni competed in seven races, winning only once
(sharing Ickx's fourth consecutive 1972 victory at Monza)
but achieving two runnerup finishes, a fourth and a fifth
for five Top Five finishes, albeit only two on the lead lap. 
He suffered one mechanical retirement and crashed out of the
Nurburgring round.
	Sandro Munari competed in only two events, each time
paired with Merzario.  They won the Targa Florio and
completed the Osterreichring 1-2-3-4.
	Marko and Pace competed in one event, teamed at the
Osterreichring, finishing second, only one lap down.
	In Henry's book, Peter Schetty addresses the 1972
312PB's drivers: "The best combination?  Difficult to say,
but I was always very impressed with Ickx and Andretti. 
They were both real professionals and neither had to prove
anything to the other.  Peterson and Schenken were a nice
pair of guys and Redman was often badly underestimated."
	Andretti, quoted in Keyser's Speed Merchants, said "To
Jacky and me, the steady-pace and finishing-second stuff was
bull.  We just gotta go; win or blow-that's all.  The
manufacturer doesn't look at it that way, but we do. 
Schetty has a tremendous amount of responsibility, because,
obvisouly, he has to call the shots from the manufacturer's
	Ermanno Cuoghi related to Walton: "The 312P was very
easy to work on.  The chassis was basically made by the
other non-team mechanics, then it would go to the machine
shop to be bored for the wishbones, welded and made straight
according to the drawings."
	"The 312P was a marvellous little car to drive.  The
drivers, and we had quite a few, all said what a good car it
was.  To dominate such a season needs some luck, but it must
have been the strongest sports car team ever from Ferrari."
	A 1972-specification 312PB achieved one other 1972
result, winning the "nonchampionship" Imola 500 Kilometers
on September 17 in the hands of Arturo Merzario; Jacky Ickx
finished second in a "1973-spec" 312PB.

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