ARA Model Review: Brumm 1:43 Scale Ferrari 312PB
29 May 1998
ARA MODEL REVIEW BRUMM 1:43 SCALE FERRARI 312PB, CAR #2, WINNER, 1972 DAYTONA 6 HOURS WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP OF MAKES EVENT, JACKY ICKX/MARIO ANDRETTI Distributed by Automobilia, division of Lustron Industries, Inc. 18 Windgate Drive, New City, New York 10956 Phone or fax: 914-639-6806 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Brumm has produced an outstanding model (catalog number R260) of the Ferrari 312PB Mario Andretti drove to his only Daytona sports car victory, the 1972 Daytona 6 Hours. Mario shared the victory with Jacky Ickx! This beautiful Ferrari-red model is appropriately accented with yellow striping and appropriately-hued supplier and sponsor decals and markings. The body contours and proportions are accurately reproduced. The 312PB was a sleek, "low to the ground" racecar and the model is evocative of that image! Detail abounds! And we're talking SMALL details here, such as dual American flags (on the nosepiece) only 1/8" in size in 1:43 scale! Notable are such minor details as the correct coloration of the headrest fairing (white), visible and appropriately-positioned and proportioned radiators and cooling ductwork. The interior is well-detailed including instrumentation. The model has been compared to two rolling-start grid photographs (page 37, Flat-12 by Alan Henry, Motor Racing Publications, London, 1981 and page 413, Ferrari: Sports Racing and Prototypes Competition Cars by Antoine Prunet, W.W. Norton & Company, 1983, New York & London). These clear photographs decisively verify the accuracy of the "spot on" details including the car number (#2), the small dual American flags, the Carello, Firestone, Heuer and Shell decals, the windscreen design, the rollbar design, the "high mirror" arrangement, the headlight assemblies, and rear fins! A large, two-page side view photograph (page 52-53, The Speed Merchants by Michael Keyser, Prentice-Hall, 1973) confirms the accuracy and placement of the Britax, Magneti Marelli, Ferrari "Prancing Horse", Champion, Prestolite and Koni decals and driver name listings! As with all Brumm models (manufactured in Italy), the model is 1:43 scale and is presented in a see-through plastic display case with a removable cover. The 1:43 scale is a good compromise between space considerations regarding display and sufficient size to permit reasonable levels of detail. Model length: 3.25 inches; width: 1.75 inches; height: 0.875 inch Model construction: Metal with plastic interior (detailed) and windscreen Display case length: 5 inches; width: 2.375 inches; height: 1.875 inches The 1972-specification 312PB is notable not only for achieving a sweep of all ten victories in the ten 1972 World Championship of Makes races it contested but also for its role in achieving the all-time (1953-1992) record for consecutive driver victories (4) in World Championship Sports Car events for Jacky Ickx. That streak began in the Daytona 6 Hours, won by Jacky and Mario Andretti in the car this model depicts! That victory is described by Alan Henry in his book Flat-12 (Motor Racing Publications, London, 1981): "The Daytona 6 Hours took place on February 6 round the famous speed bowl, this time with 0888 in the hands of Ickx/Andretti, 0890 for Regazzoni/Redman and 0892 for Peterson/Schenken. For the start, Andretti and Regazzoni were side-by-side on the front row, but all three Ferraris were given a good run for their money by Reine Wisell in Jo Bonnier's Lola-Cosworth T280. Andretti/Ickx led from the start, but Wisell quickly pulled right up on Regazzoni round the banking, challenging the Italian car time and time again. Unfortunately for Wisell, Regazzoni picked up some wreckage from a crashed Chevrolet Corvette-the Swiss had a mind-boggling spin as a rear tyre blew, and the PB's rear body section flew off, bouncing straight into the screen of Wisell's car. Mercifully, Reine kept control, but the front of the Lola was pretty badly frayed and both cars had to limp into the pits for attention. In fact, this was a race in which the Ferraris didn't have it all their own way by any means. The Peterson/Schenken machine was an early pit visitor with clutch trouble, finishing the event staggering round in second place with gearbox problems, ahead of the Alfa of Vic Elford/Helmut Marko. Winners were Ickx/Andretti, but the fact that they survived to triumph on 11 cylinders is another great testimony to the strength of the machinery." The 312PB was created in response to a change in the rules governing sports car racing. As Alan Henry described: "The CSI announced in 1970 that there would be an overall sports car limit of 3 litres from the start of 1972, except, of course, for GT and saloon contenders. While Porsche announced that they would cease endurance racing at the end of the 1971 season, Ferrari lost no time at all turning to the development of a 3-litre sports car, using their well-tired flat-12-cylinder Grand Prix engine as the basis for a long-distance power unit. Although the 512s raced against the works Porsches in 1970, once the CSI's announcement was made, Modena dropped all further development work on the big V12 and turned its attention to developing the 312PB. What's more, they decided to run their new 3-litre prototype against the 5-litre Porsches throughout 1971 for development and evaluation purposes before launching a major assault on the Championship for Makes the following year." In his book, Ferrari: Sports Racing and Prototypes Competition Cars (W.W. Norton & Company, 1983, New York & London), Antoine Prunet writes: "Ferrari had anticipated this measure and had therefore sacrificed the 1971 season to the perfection of the 312PB; they now found themselves in a perfect position for the start of the 1972 season. Alfa Romeo with its 33/TT3, and Lola with its T280 would be almost the only rivals of the 312PB which, even if it was only just emerging from a quite incredible chapter of accidents, had nevertheless revealed a formidable potential. Jeremy Walton notes in his book, Racing Mechanic Ermanno Cuoghi: Mechanic to a world champion (1980, Osprey Publishing, London) "In January 1971 they made their first racing appearance with a new Ferrari 312P. For that Buenos Aires opener to the title hunt, the flat-twelve Ferrari was quoted as weighing 600 kg, over 100 lb less than designs from Matra and Alfa Romeo at the time, and providing 450 bhp from an engine in nearly the same stage of tune as the formula 1 unit for the 312B (for Boxer or flat, opposing, cylinder layout). This led a lot of people to dub it a Formula 1 car with a sports body on it. In Cuoghi's opinion that was very far from the truth, the wide spaceframe chassis being totally different to the Grand Prix design, having the appearance of a full monocoque, thanks to riveted-on alloy sheets. Many other essential components were unique to the sports Ferrari as well." Henry describes the 312PB: "The flat-12 engine (80.0 mm x 49.6 mm, 2991 cc) was prepared in detuned trim to deliver a relatively modest 440 bhp at 10,800 rpm, as opposed to the 12,600 rpm rev limit on the Grand Prix unit. The 312 PB chassis was formed by a tubular spaceframe clad in sheet aluminum to form a semi-monocoque unit and, behind the cockpit, the tubes formed a structure over the engine, which was also attached to the rear of the main frame, forming what might be termed the car's backbone. The cockpit contained two seats, close together, flanked by wide sponsons, the left one of which accomodated the 120-litre fuel tank. By its position on the left of the car, the fuel tank balanced the driver's weight on the right, although the tank was fed from a huge filler cap at the forward end of the the right-hand sponson, a pipe taking the fuel across the cockpit floor (beneath the driver's knees) to the tank. >From the tank itself another filler cap protruded, topped by an Avery-Hardoll bayonet-type attachment matching the one on the right. At fuel stops a plastic container would be clamped on to the left-hand filler cap, acting as a refuge for the air forced out of the tank under pressure as the gravity-fed hose pumped Shell into the opposite side of the 312PB. When petrol started to move into the container on the left-hand side, it was an indication that the tank was filled, and when that container and hose were removed from their respective apertures, the connectors self-sealed and the car could resume racing. Water radiators were mounted centrally, at the rear of each sponson, the left-hand one having the oil tank behind it. The engine oil-cooler was mounted on top of the clutch housing. For refilling the system with lubricant, there was a plug-in filling attachment operated in conjunction with a sight-glass tube to show the level in the tank, visible to the mechanics through a slot in the car's flanks. Suspension at the front was by double wishbones with outboard coil-spring/damper units and the cast-alloy hub-carriers extended rearwards to form steering arms, the rack-and-pinion assembly passing across the driver's knees. The brake calipers were mounted on the hub-carriers and the wheels were retained by a single central locking nut, which was intended to accept air-assisted hoses for loosening and tightening at pit stops. At the rear, the disc calipers were integral with the hub-carrier and were hung from a lower wishbone with its apex on a casting under the clutch casing, secured at the top by a single top link. The five-speed-gearbox was hung 'out the back,' as on the Grand Prix cars, although this was to be altered for 1972 to provide a quick-change facility when it came to fitting alternative ratios." Henry also relates an interesting story regarding the model's designation: "There is a story recounted by respected Italian journalist Franco Lini, himself a former Ferrari team manager, concerning the designation officially given to the 3-litre flat-12 cylinder Group six sports-racing car which steamrollered its way to victory in eary 1972 long-distance event for which it was entered. Lini says that he heard that Modena had dubbed the sleek little 'two-seater Grand Prix car' the 312PB-standing for 3-litre, 12-cylinder, prototipo boxer, the boxer referring of course to the horizontally-opposed engine. Lini realized that, following the traditional Ferrari system, , the car should be designated boxer prototipo and brought this subject up with the Commendatore when the car was unveiled. Franco recounts that Ferrari snorted and replied: 'It's the 312PB. How can I call it the BP when my cars are contracted to run on Shell!" The 1971 312PB campaign was a "research and development" effort conducted in competition. Only one three-liter 312PB entry competed in each event against the might of Porsche's five-liter 917s. The car led in its first appearance but suffered a tragic end as Ignazio Giunti died in a wreck in the Buenos Aires season-opener. In the 1971 Sebring 12 Hours, Mario Andretti and Jacky Ickx teamed to lead laps 40 through 117 before retiring with gearbox failure. Ickx and Clay Regazzoni drove the entry at Brands Hatch; Ickx was Fast Qualifier and led the race but lost eight laps after contact with a backmarker; the duo finished second. At Monza Ickx/Regazzoni were again the victim of contact with a car being lapped, and at Spa the same fate befell them for the third consecutive race! Ickx then was Fast Qualifier for the Nurburgring round, set Fast Lap, and with Regazzoni led laps 1-6 and 13-21 before engine failure retired the car! Starting second at the Osterreichring, the duo led laps 31-148 before suspension failure caused the car to crash out of the event. In the season finale at Watkins Glen, Ickx was paired with Andretti; they started third and led laps 51-52 and 54-55 before retiring with engine failure as a 312PB retired while leading for the third consecutive race! In his book Directory of Classic Prototypes and Grand Touring Cars (Aston Publications, 1988), Anthony Pritchard notes: "In Prototype racing 1972 was the most successful year in Ferrari's racing history and the team scored ten wins, without a single failure. A batch of six new cars had been built so that three-car teams could be fielded at each race without having to run the cars in successive races. Ferrari had an immensely strong team of drivers consisting of Ickx, Regazzoni and Andretti (all members of the Ferrari Formula 1 team), together with Brian Redman, Ronnie Peterson, and Tim Schenken. Apart from the fact that the cars were superbly engineered, the full year's testing in 1971 proved of immense benefit, the team was well managed by Peter Schetty and standards of preparation, the responsibility of Ermanno Cuoghi, formerly with the Gulf team, but now joint chief Ferrari mechanic, were better than at any time in Ferrari history." Henry concurs: "For the 1972 season, Ferrari mounted one of the most imposing onslaughts ever seen in the world of sports car racing. In anticipation of strong competition, both from Matra and the new Alfa Romeo flat-12, a three-car team was planned to contest all 11 rounds of the World Championship for Makes. To this end, Maranello built a total of six more 312PBs, numbered alternately from 0886 to 0896, and devised a programme whereby each driver pairing would alternate between two allocated cars from event to event. Thus the cars that opened the season in Buenos Aires on January 9 would next be seen in the third round of the Championship at Sebring, and the cars raced in the second round at Daytona would make their next appearance at the fourth round at Brands Hatch, and so on. Three mechanics were allocated to each of the six cars, so one team would be away at a race while another would be back at base preparing a fresh car. It was a massively expensive programmed, reputedly funded by Fiat to the tune of well over a million pounds." "On the driver front, Ferrari's talent scouts were scouring the Formula One scene intently. Under contract already were Jacky Ickx and Clay Regazzoni, with Mario Andretti still available to race when his USAC schedule allowed. In fact, Ferrari made a big play for Andretti, tempting the Italian-born driver with a generous "full time" contract if he would come and live in Italy. But Andretti had too much going fro him on the other side of the Atlantic and wouldn't accept anybody trying to impose their will on him when it came to choosing where he lived." In The Speed Merchants (Prentice-Hall, 1973), Michael Keyser notes: "In 1972, Peter Schetty was 29 and in his second year as Ferrari's team manager. The prize was the 1972 World Championship of Makes, and Ferrari, after a languid effort the year before, had decided to go all out to win it. The drivers they had were among the world's best: Ickx, Andretti, Redman, Regazzoni, Schenken, Peterson. The cars were newly designed and were well-supported with money from Fiat, Ferrari's parent company. Peter Schetty was in a good position as a team manager since he spoke four languages. He had been a prototype driver himself and had the full confidence of the factory as he set out to win the championship." As Henry notes, the 1972 PBs "now had wider wheel rims (11-inch front, 17-inch rear compared with the previous year's 10-inch front, 16-inch rear) and lower-profile tyres, while the flat-12 was quoted as producing 460 bhp, an increase of 20 bhp, still at the 10,800 rpm limit. The cars were a little wider to conform with the latest regulations, and slightly heavier by some 40 pounds (total 1430 lb/650 kg). Prunet elaborates "The modifications made to the 312PB for 1972 were minimal, and were mostly due to the tyre changes and the requirements of the new regulations. The adoption of even lower-profile, and much wider, Firestone tyres had necessitated a widening of the track, which manifested itself in a slight bulge in the rear wings and in a reduction of some 6 cm in the height of the car. The prescribed minimum weight (650 kg) had permitted the chassis to be reinforced. The diameter of certain tubes had been enlarged and, for the same reasons, the contours of the cockpit had been modified in such a way that the passenger seat was no longer covered by a fairing." In the 1972 season-opener at Buenos Aires, Ronnie Peterson was the fast qualifier and started on the pole; the Jacky Ickx/Mario Andretti entry started third and the Clay Regazzoni/Brian Redman 312PB started fourth. Peterson and teammate Tim Schenken led more than half of the event and led a 312PB 1-2 over Regazzoni/Redman as both cars completed 168 laps. The Ickx/Andretti car lost eighteen laps in the pits with electrical problems but still finished tenth, only 16 laps behind the winners. Andretti put his car on the pole for the Daytona 6 Hours with the Regazzoni/Redman car starting second and Schenken/Peterson third! The Ickx/Andretti car led 153 of 194 laps (4-7, 26-32, 34-67, 79-90, 98, and 100-194) and won by two laps over Schenken/Peterson. Regazzoni and Redman finished fourth, fifteen laps down. Schenken and Peterson had clutch problems; they led fourteen laps (73-78, 91-97, and 99). The Regazzoni/Redman entry was the victim of accident debris after leading 21 of the first 25 laps (1-3, 8-25). The 312PBs combined to lead every lap of the race! Andretti won the pole for the Sebring 12 Hours with the Regazzoni/Redman car qualifying second. Ickx and Andretti won by two laps over teammates Schenken/Peterson. The runnerup Ferrari was 24 laps ahead of the third-placed Alfa Romeo! The winners led 112 laps (laps 1-63 and 211-259); the other 147 laps (64-210) were led by the Regazzoni/Redman 312PB; Redman set Fast Lap but the car was eliminated by a fire after completing 215 laps. Ickx and Andretti took their third consecutive win with victory at Brands Hatch; this time, however, they started second as the Regazzoni/Redman car was on the pole with Schenken/Peterson third. Jacky and Mario won by one lap over Schenken and Peterson; the Regazzoni/Redman car lost fifteen minutes to an oil leak and finished fifth, fifteen laps down. Jacky Ickx won a Sports Car World Championship-record fourth consecutive race by taking the win at Monza. The victory came from second starting position and unlike the first three of the streak was achieved not with Mario Andretti but rather Clay Regazzoni as partner. They won by four laps over the Reinhold Joest/Gerhard Schueler Porsche 908 in the only event with more than one 312PB entry producing less than a 1-2 312PB finish! Ronnie Peterson won the pole at Monza and also set Fast Lap; he spun on lap 33 and lost eleven laps, eventually finishing third, nine laps behind Ickx/Regazzoni. For this race Redman was teamed with Arturo Merzario, as "Little Art" drove a Ferrari for the first time in 1972; the car completed only 32 laps before Redman spun off in the rain. The Redman/Merzario pairing bounced back to win at Spa; they started second and won by a lap over the Ickx/Regazzoni duo. The runnerup car had started on pole and led until a late-race flat tire. The Peterson/Schenken pairing started third but Peterson wrecked in the rain on lap 57. Ferrari entered only one car in the Targa Florio classic against a four-car Alfa Romeo team but won anyway by 16.9 seconds over the runnerup Alfa Romeo. The victory was achieved by the unusual pairing of Arturo Merzario and rally star Sandro Munari! Merzario had been the fastest qualifier for the event while Helmut Marko in the Alfa Romeo set the race's Fast Lap in an ultimately unsuccessful effort to catch the Ferrari! The Ferrari led all but the fourth lap, led by Marko. At the Nurburgring Peterson won the pole and the Peterson/Schenken duo led most of the race, winning by four minutes, thirty seconds over teammates Merzario/Redman (this duo started sixth). Regazzoni and Ickx started eighth but Regazzoni wrecked on the 18th lap (of 44) as Ickx was saddled with his only retirement of the season! The Derek Bell/Gijs Van Lennep Cosworth Ford DFV-powered Mirage M6 qualified second for the Nurburgring race and led briefly before finishing fourth. Austria's Osterreichring featured a four-car 312PB entry with an additional car for Helmut Marko/Carlos Pace; Marko was serving as a "one-time" replacement for Clay Regazzoni, injured in a pre-race soccer mishap! The 312PBs finished 1-2-3-4 as Ickx/Redman won by one lap (with Ickx setting Fast Lap en route to victory) over Marko/Pace (this duo started fifth). Peterson/Schenken finished third, four laps down, suffering clutch slip, after starting fourth, while Merzario/Munari, the sixth-place starters, finished fourth, six laps down. Ironically, although the perfect sweep of the top four positions was a high point for Ferrari, the race began with the Bell/Van Lennep Mirage on the pole and the Cosworth Ford DFV-powered Lola of Gerard Larrousse in second starting position! Both cars failed to finish the race, however! The season finale at Watkins Glen gave Ickx his sixth win of 1972 and Andretti his fourth victory; the pairing started second and won by 13.0 seconds over Schenken/Peterson, leading only the final three (of 195) laps! Schenken (the Fast Qualifier) and Peterson had led up to that point! Redman and Merzario were teamed in the fourth-starting third 312PB entry but a blown engine caused their retirement after 136 laps. In the ten Championship events, Ferrari fielded 29 312PB entries, won all ten races, achieved eight runnerup finishes, two third-place finishes, twenty Top Three "podium" finishes, two fourth-place finishes, one fifth-place finish, twenty-three Top Five finishes, one tenth-place finish, and twenty-four Top Ten finishes! A 312PB failed to finish only five times, twice for mechanical reasons, three times due to wrecks! The 312PBs finished 1-2-3-4 once and 1-2 seven times plus the Targa Florio win scored by the single entry, failing to score at least a 1-2 with a multi-car entry in only one race! The ten-race, 29-entry 1972 effort completed a total of 4352 laps of a possible 4711, or a staggering 92.38%! By comparison, the works Alfa Romeo effort never managed better than a third-place finish (Buenos Aires, Daytona, Sebring, Brands Hatch, Nurburgring) against a multi-car 312PB effort with its best result, a 2-3 finish in the Targa Florio, coming behind the only Ferrari entered in the race! Alfa Romeo skipped Monza, Spa, Osterreichring, and Watkins Glen, but did compete in the LeMans 24 Hours, with one car finishing fourth and the other two suffering mechanical retirements. The Alfas suffered eight mechanical retirements in 23 starts. The Cosworth Ford DFV-powered Mirages posted a best finish of third at Watkins Glen with European finishes of fourth at Spa and the Nurburgring. Cosworth Ford DFV-powered Lolas produced a best finish of fifth, at Spa; this finish was bettered several times by two liter Cosworth Ford-powered entries! Ten drivers competed in the 29 1972 Ferrari 312PB entries. Ickx, Peterson, Redman, and Schenken drove in nine events each, Regazzoni seven, Merzario six, Andretti five, Munari two, and Marko and Pace one each. Ickx achieved six wins and a runnerup finish plus a tenth-place finish. He suffered only one retirement, caused by codriver Regazzoni's accident. Jacky won four times with Mario and once each with Regazzzoni and Redman. His six wins and six lead-lap finishes led the 312PB drivers. Andretti ranked second in wins with four from only five starts; he also finished tenth once, each time paired with Ickx. He suffered no retirements and tied for second-ranking in lead-lap finishes with four. Redman won three of his nine starts; he also achieved a runnerup finish, a fourth and a fifth for a total of six Top Five finishes. Redman suffered two mechanical retirements and crashed out of one race. He finished on the lead lap four times. Merzario won two of his six starts, Spa with Redman and the Targa with Munari, and also achieved a runnerup finish and a fourth-place finish, taking three lead-lap finishes. Merzario suffered one mechanical retirement plus a retirement at Monza caused by codriver Redman's accident. The Peterson/Schenken pairing contested nine races and won twice, took four runnerup finishes, and two third-place finishes to achieve the best total of Top Three "podium" finishes, eight, although the duo finished on the lead lap only three times. They suffered one retirement, due to a Peterson accident at Spa. Regazzoni competed in seven races, winning only once (sharing Ickx's fourth consecutive 1972 victory at Monza) but achieving two runnerup finishes, a fourth and a fifth for five Top Five finishes, albeit only two on the lead lap. He suffered one mechanical retirement and crashed out of the Nurburgring round. Sandro Munari competed in only two events, each time paired with Merzario. They won the Targa Florio and completed the Osterreichring 1-2-3-4. Marko and Pace competed in one event, teamed at the Osterreichring, finishing second, only one lap down. In Henry's book, Peter Schetty addresses the 1972 312PB's drivers: "The best combination? Difficult to say, but I was always very impressed with Ickx and Andretti. They were both real professionals and neither had to prove anything to the other. Peterson and Schenken were a nice pair of guys and Redman was often badly underestimated." Andretti, quoted in Keyser's Speed Merchants, said "To Jacky and me, the steady-pace and finishing-second stuff was bull. We just gotta go; win or blow-that's all. The manufacturer doesn't look at it that way, but we do. Schetty has a tremendous amount of responsibility, because, obvisouly, he has to call the shots from the manufacturer's end." Ermanno Cuoghi related to Walton: "The 312P was very easy to work on. The chassis was basically made by the other non-team mechanics, then it would go to the machine shop to be bored for the wishbones, welded and made straight according to the drawings." "The 312P was a marvellous little car to drive. The drivers, and we had quite a few, all said what a good car it was. To dominate such a season needs some luck, but it must have been the strongest sports car team ever from Ferrari." A 1972-specification 312PB achieved one other 1972 result, winning the "nonchampionship" Imola 500 Kilometers on September 17 in the hands of Arturo Merzario; Jacky Ickx finished second in a "1973-spec" 312PB. Our website at http://members.aol.com/autoracg/ provides a wealth of useful and interesting auto racing information! The site also contains descriptions of the many services and products available from Auto Racing Analysis!