With New E.torQ Family, FPT Gets High-Technology Midsize Engines onto the Market
TURIN, ITALY – July 9, 2010: Energy, Engineering, Emotion and Ecology have been brought together in the new launch from FPT – Fiat Powertrain Technologies: the E.torQ powertrain family. Made at the FPT facility in Campo Largo, the name of the new engines was inspired by their main attribute – high torque at low revolutions. The E.torQ family represents an expansion of the range of solutions offered by FPT to the global market, with a global product, which has hit the ground running as best-in-class in maximum torque and also as a reference point in such aspects as performance, reliability, low levels of consumption, of emissions, of noise and vibrations.
The engines were developed from the gasoline 1.6l 16v E0 from the former Tritec Motors. Based on this, FPT has produced five new versions: 1.6l 16v Flex-fuel and 1.8l 16v Flex-fuel – for the Brazilian market – and the 1.6l 16v and 1.8l 16v E0 and a Sulev (Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle) version, which is still under development.
The E.torQ family is the result of over 500,000 hours of development, involving 20,000 hours of reliability testing in a dynamometer, 9,000 hours of calculations, and 5 million kilometers of durability, reliability and application testing. The project involved over 100 engineers from the FPT Engineering Center in Betim (Brazil) and in Italy. In addition, 1,200 pre-series and prototype engines were made before production began. All this work has resulted in high-technology engines, with particular attention on the following aspects:
The engineering project was developed to make the most of torque at low revolutions, with a capacity to meet global emissions standards – assuring the global nature of the new line of engines from FPT. Other focuses were reduced fuel consumption and reduced noise and vibration levels, as well as increased reliability and a greater use of components made in Brazil. The new powertrains are ready for the future, prepared for technological evolution, using turbocompressors and the MultiAir system of valve timing control.
To be sure of the modernity of its new powertrain family, FPT developed a series of new features to add quality to the solid and technological base offered by Tritec engines. In all, 70% of the engine is new, including components such as blocks, crankshafts, connecting rods, pistons, intake manifolds, valvetrains, electronic injection systems, engine wheels, water pump and power steering, valve caps, cylinder heads and injection nozzles.
Computational and experimental techniques for the analysis of fluid, thermal and structural dynamics allowed latest-generation technical solutions to be included in the project. One example of this is the optimization of the calculations for the injector spray, using 3D software called Virtual Engine Modeling (VEM), which represents the state of the art in thermodynamic and fluid dynamic simulation for internal combustion engines.
VEM can design the entire internal geometry of the engine, from the intake manifold plenum to the first part of the exhaust manifold, using a mobile 3D grid to simulate the movement of the piston and the valves. In the model, all the gas and liquid movements, the formation of spray, the coalescence of drops, temperature changes between fluids and between fluids and metal surfaces, vaporization and fluid phase mixtures are represented.
This makes it possible to predict and optimize the behavior of the injector sprays, optimizing the mixture in the cylinders and reducing the maximum the formation of a fluid film in the conduits and valves. This means it is possible to minimize the emission of unburned hydrocarbons, reducing fuel consumption and improving combustion.
In addition, the intake manifold went through computation fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to minimize loss of charge and volumetric yield symmetry among the cylinders.
To reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, 3.5mm tall Topland pistons were used to reduce the crevice volumes. This involves volumes of fuel-air mixtures that are trapped in crevices in the combustion chamber, preventing their being burned. This means that unburned gases leave the exhaust, increasing HC emissions. Using the 3.5mm Topland, the volume trapped in the crevice between the first ring, the top of the piston, and the cylinder is reduced, reducing emissions to a minimum.
The E.torQ engines have components that have been especially planned with a focus on performance and reduced fuel consumption and emissions – mainly due to reduced weight and/or friction. Examples are the graphite, optimized, Evotec pistons, which are lighter and have asymmetrical box walls, minimizing friction with the cylinders, as well as valve trains.
The new forged, split, syntherized connecting rods are the lowest mass on the market for this cylinder band. In the same way, the rings are low friction with low tangential loads at heights of 1.2: and 2.41 mm, and are among the lowest mass and friction on the market for this cylinder band.
To reduce the deformation of cylinder jackets, the engine block has cylinder head fittings separate from the cylinder jackets. In addition, the threads are positioned in the upper part of the das water jackets and the connections between the jackets and the outside were kept apart from the cylinder head fittings. This made it possible to reduce deformation of the jackets caused by twisting of the cylinder heads, so reducing friction and oil consumption.
The combustion chamber has a low surface/volume ratio and a central sparkplug. This reduces combustion time and results in greater thermal efficiency, which translates into performance gains and les fuel consumption.
Thermo-structural calculations were used to check and eliminate any fatigue in the block, bedplate and cylinder heads. In addition, the same kind of calculation was used to design the new three-chamber metal cylinder head gasket, preventing prior to construction of the prototype the pressure from leaks between the gasket, block and cylinder heads.
Other content conserves the perfect functioning of the engine throughout its working life. Examples of this are flat seal surfaces, which optimize the performance of casings and guarantee no leaks; the new drive-by-wire throttle with a contactless sensor, which eliminates mechanical contact between internal components of the sensor; the maintenance-free valvetrain, with hydraulic tappets; and the timing chain, which no longer needs periodic maintenance.
For an even more significant increase in reliability, E.torQ engines have crankshafts with a special microstructure, with greater resistance to fatigue, and eight counterweights which reduce the effort required of the bearings; optimized pistons with a reinforced hub, maximizing resistance; and forged, split, syntherized connecting rods which offer, at the same time, absolute precision of assembly, resistance, and maximum lightness.
Although blessed with a series of high-technology items, the new FPT powertrain family is compact and has a simplified layout. All the peripherals are mounted straight on the block, which also has the water pump, power steering and engine support integrated. All of this guarantees more versatility to the E.torQ family, allowing its application on different platforms in various segments, as well as ease of maintenance as a result of the free space in the engine bay.
The weight of the E.torQ engines is competitive, even compared to the competitors that use an aluminum block. The block and cylinder heads of the new line of engines have reduced masses compared with other 16v engines with the same cylinders. Also to this end, a plastic intake manifolds and cylinder head gaskets were used, making them lighter.
The reduction of noise levels and vibration was also one of the aims of the FPT engineering project. To achieve this, the front end transmission was isolated. In addition, E.torQ engines use an aluminum oil pan, which provides greater structural rigidity for the powertrain. With crankshafts
with eight counterweights it was possible to achieve a 25% reduction in the resultant balancing force.
The symmetry of flows between the four parts of the intake manifold, conceived of using 3D fluid dynamic calculations, along with the design of the cylinder head conduits and combustion chambers, allows exceptional combustion symmetry between the four cylinders, enhancing the smooth operation of the engine.
With reduced weight and optimized box walls, the engineering project stabilized the movement of the pistons, also further reducing noise. Finally, three classes of rod bearings were used for stricter gap tolerances in the large connecting rod sockets. This guarantees the maintenance of low noise throughout the engine’s working life.
The E.torQ engines are the best example that for FPT innovation and conservation go hand-in-hand. The new powertrains have achieved a fuel consumption and emissions reduction of around 5% compared with the 1.8l used now by Fiat.
The level of emissions in the E.torQ family is up to 40% below that established in Brazilian law. In addition, the powertrains have the electronic emission control system OBD BR-1 and are now comparable with the next stage of legislation, OBD BR-2.
The E.torQ engines have a recyclability index of 95%, and use an ecological filter – in which only the paper and rubber filter elements are changes, using the rest of the structure.
The energy of the E.torQ powertrains is expressed in their excellent performance, both at high and low revolutions. Using ethanol, the 1.6l 16v Flex has a maximum power of 117 hp at 5,500 rpm and maximum torque of 16.8 kgm at 4,500 rpm. The gasoline version develops 115 hp at 5,500 rpm and torque of 16.2 kgm at 4,500 rpm. These figures make the engine the most powerful 1.6l flex-fuel on the market, as well as having the highest torque among the engines with the same number of cylinders.
The 1.8l 16v Flex version has maximum power of 132 hp at 5,250 and maximum torque of 18.9 kgm at 4,500 rpm, when running on ethanol. On gasoline, the power and torque figures are, respectively, 130 hp at 5,250 rpm and 18.4 kgm at 4,500 rpm. This is the highest torque among all 1.8 engines available on the Brazilian market.
Both the 1.6l and 1.8l versions present practically flat torque curves, with 80% of the torque available at 1,500 rpm and 93% at 2,500 rpm.
Fun to drive is the most appropriate term to describe the feeling of driving a car powered by E.torQ engines. Silent, smooth, and with great performance and elasticity, the powertrain offers quick dynamic responses to any kind of driving. In addition, their torque at low rpm – the highlight of the new family – also helps reduce fuel consumption and emissions.
The thrill of driving the E.torQ can be seen in the country’s racetracks, in single-seat cars in Formula Future Fiat – a competition where the E.torQ 1.8l made its debut. Using a racing kit developed by FPT, the engine reached 160 hp in a normally-aspirated version. The acoustic performance of the new engine line highlights further the pleasure of driving. Taking the 1.8l Flex-fuel version as a parameter, FPT powertrains are superior to Brazilian-made competitors of the same volumetric capacity in comparative testing, even with the E.torQ using ethanol. In addition, the engine achieved noise levels markedly below the approved level established by FPT in low gears.